Yazisa, Ukuxhobisa, Qhagamshela

Izixhobo zeOsteosarcoma  

Wamkelekile kwi-Toolkit yethu ye-Osteosarcoma. Apha uya kufumana ulwazi malunga nokuba yintoni i-osteosarcoma kunye nokuba ifunyaniswa kwaye inyangwe njani. 

Funda i-toolkit yethu yonke okanye ucofe kumakhonkco angezantsi ukutsibela kumacandelo athile. 

Yintoni umhlaza? 

Yintoni i-Osteosarcoma? 

Yintoni ebangela iOsteosarcoma? 

Ziziphi iimpawu ze-Osteosarcoma? 

Ifunyaniswa njani iOsteosarcoma? 

Lithetha ukuthini iBanga loMhlaza kunye neSigaba? 

Inyangwa njani iOsteosarcoma? 

Ukuhlala kunye naNgaphandle kweOsteosarcoma. 

Ezinye izixhobo malunga ne-Osteosarcoma. 

Yintoni umhlaza?

Umzimba uyilwe ziibhiliyoni zeeseli eziquletheyo DNA, ikhowudi yemfuza yomzimba. Le khowudi ifana neresiphi emisela indlela esikhula ngayo kwaye siphuhlise kwaye ekugqibeleni isenze. Iiseli zihlala zihlula kwaye ngexesha le nkqubo ikhowudi yezofuzo ikopishwa. Ngamanye amaxesha iimpazamo ziyenzeka kwaye ikhowudi ikhutshelwe ngokungalunganga. Olu tshintsho kwikhowudi yofuzo lwaziwa ngokuba ziinguqu kwaye amaxesha amaninzi azinabungozi (iresiphi isasebenza). Nangona kunjalo kwezinye iimeko iinguqu zenguqu zikhokelela kwiiseli ezahlula ngokungalawulekiyo ezikhokelela kuyo umhlaza.

Iiseli zomhlaza ziya kuhlala ziqala kwindawo enye kwaye zenze ubunzima obubizwa ngokuba yi ithumba. Ezi seli zinokusasazeka kwezinye iindawo zomzimba kwinkqubo eyaziwa ngokuba yi imastastasis. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba amanye amathumba ayingozi (ayiyomhlaza) kwaye awasasazeki kwezinye iindawo. 

Kukho iintlobo ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zomhlaza kunye nokufumanisa ukuba ngowuphi umhlaza onawo linyathelo lokuqala lokuphuhlisa isicwangciso sonyango.

Yintoni i-Osteosarcoma?

I-Osteosarcoma luhlobo lomhlaza oluvela ethanjeni kwaye luchaphazela abantu abayi-3.4 kwisigidi minyaka le. kwihlabathi jikelele. Idla ngokuvela ekupheleni kwamathambo amade (umz. amathambo omlenze nengalo), kwindawo eyaziwa ngokuba yimetaphysis. Ukukhula kwamathambo kulawulwa ziiseli ezibizwa ngokuba zii-osteoclasts kunye nee-osteoblasts, ezisebenzisanayo ukugcina amathambo esempilweni. I-osteoclasts isusa ithambo elidala, ngelixa i-osteoblasts yenza ithambo elitsha. Kwi-osteosarcoma, iiseli zomhlaza zibangela ukuba imiqondiso phakathi kwezi seli iphazamiseke okukhokelela ekubeni i-osteoclasts itshabalalise ithambo elisempilweni kwaye ikhokelele ekukhuleni kwethumba.

Yintoni ebangela iOsteosarcoma?

Unobangela weosteosarcoma awukaziwa. Akukho miba yokusingqongileyo okanye utshintsho oluthile oluye lwachongwa njengonobangela. Nangona kunjalo, kukho izinto ezithile ezinokunyusa umngcipheko womntu wokuphuhlisa i-osteosarcoma. Ngamanye amazwi ukuba nale miba yomngcipheko akuthethi ukuba uya kuba ne-osteosarcoma kodwa usemngciphekweni omkhulu kunomntu ongenazo ezi zinto.  

Izinto zobungozi  

  • Iimeko zeGenetic (i-Li Fraumeni syndrome kunye ne-Retinoblastoma)
  • Ubudala (Abafikisayo kunye nabaselula - banokudityaniswa nokukhula kwamathambo)
  • Isifo sikaPaget (Imeko ebangela ukwakheka kwamathambo okungaqhelekanga)
  • IRadiotherapy yangaphambili (iRadiotherapy isetyenziselwa ukunyanga umhlaza kodwa ibandakanya iidosi eziphezulu zemitha, enokunyusa umngcipheko wokuba nomhlaza kwixesha elizayo)

Ziziphi iimpawu ze-Osteosarcoma?

Ezona mpawu zixhaphakileyo ze-osteosarcoma zezi: 

  • Iintlungu eziqhubekayo zamathambo ezidla ngokuba zibi kakhulu ebusuku kwaye ziphazamise ubuthongo. 
  • Ukudumba okunokuthi kuthintele intshukumo.
  • Ukuqhawula kumonzakalo omncinci.

Kukwakho neempawu ezingezizo ezikhethekileyo ezibonwa kuzo zonke iicancer ezibandakanya ukulahlekelwa ngumdla wokutya kunye nokuncipha komzimba.

Ifunyaniswa njani iOsteosarcoma?

Apha sinika isishwankathelo sokuba ugqirha uyakrokrela osteosarcoma, baya kuququzelela inani lokuskena ukujonga amathambo ngokubanzi. Oku kuya kubandakanya i-x-reyi elandelwa yi-MRI okanye i-CT scan (bona yethu 'Iintlobo zokuskena' iphepha ukufumana ngakumbi). Okulandelayo, a biopsy iya kuthathwa. Oku kuquka ukusebenzisa inaliti ukususa ezinye iiseli ethanjeni. Ugqirha eyaziwa ngokuba yi-pathologist iya kuhlola iiseli phantsi kwe-microscope kwaye iqinisekise ukuba iiseli zinomhlaza kwaye luhlobo luni lomhlaza.. Ukuba i-osteosarcoma iqinisekisiwe, ukuxilongwa okupheleleyo komzimba owaziwa ngokuba yi-staging scan (okanye i-PET scan) kuya kwenziwa ukujonga ukuba iiseli zomhlaza zisasazekile na kwezinye iindawo emzimbeni. Ityala ke liya kuthi ke ligqithiselwe kwiqela leengcali zoogqirha be-sarcoma abaya kudibana ukuze benze isicwangciso sonyango lomntu ngamnye. Intlanganiso yaziwa ngokuba yi-a Iqela lezinto ezininzi Intlanganiso (MDT). 

Uxilongo lomntu ngamnye luya kwahluka kancinci. Sinike isishwankathelo sento emayilindelwe kodwa ukuxilongwa kunokwenziwa nanini na ngexesha lophando. 

 

01 | I-X-Ray

Kwenziwa iskena ukujonga ithambo ngokubanzi.

02 | I-MRI/CT

Oku kulandelwa zizikena ezakha imifanekiso ethe kratya yethambo kunye nezakhiwo ezingqongileyo.

03 | I-Biopsy

Isampulu encinci yeeseli emva koko isuswe ethanjeni kwaye ihlolwe phantsi kwe-microscope.

04 | I-PET Scan

Ukuskena ukubona ukuba iiseli zomhlaza zikwenye indawo emzimbeni ziya kwenziwa. Oku kuya kusetyenziselwa uqeqesho umhlaza.

05 | I-MDT 

Iingcali zidibana ukuze zixoxe ngetyala lakho kwaye zenze isicwangciso sonyango.

Lithetha ukuthini iBanga loMhlaza kunye neSigaba?

Ungabeva oogqirha bebhekisa kumhlaza wakho ngokuqinisekileyo kwibakala okanye iqonga. Inqanaba kunye nenqanaba lomhlaza wakho linceda oogqirha ukuba benze isicwangciso sonyango.

Ibakala lomhlaza libhekisa kwindlela okhangeleka ngayo phantsi kwemakroskopu.

  • IiCancer zeBanga eliphantsi - Iiseli zibukeka ziqhelekile kwaye zihlala zihlula kancinci. Le mihlaza ikhula kancinci kwaye ayinakunwenwa kakhulu.
  • Umhlaza weBanga eliPhakamileyo – Iiseli zikhangeleka zingaqhelekanga kwaye zidla ngokuhlukana ngokukhawuleza. Le mihlaza idla ngokukhula ngokukhawuleza kwaye inokusasazeka kwezinye iindawo emzimbeni.

Inqanaba lomhlaza wakho libhekisa kubungakanani bawo nokuba sele unwenwele kwezinye iindawo zomzimba. Isetyenziswa ngoogqirha ukwenza izicwangciso zonyango. Kukho iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokubonisa ezisetyenziselwa i-osteosarcoma eyona ixhaphakileyo yi-TNM (ithumba, i-node, metastasis) kunye Enneking iqonga isixokelelwano

Inqanaba le-TNM

I-TNM imele ithumba, i-node, i-metastasis. 

Ithumba libhekisa kubungakanani bobunzima. 

  • T1 – Ithumba lingaphantsi kwe-8cm ububanzi.
  • T2 - Ithumba lingaphezulu kwe-8cm ububanzi.
  • T3 – Kukho ngaphezu kwendawo enye yomhlaza kwithambo elinye.

IiNodes zichaza ukuba umhlaza unwenwele kwii-lymph nodes.

  • N0 - Akukho lymph nodes zibandakanyekayo.
  • I-N1 - I-lymph nodes ibandakanyeka.

UM uchaza ukuba umhlaza unwenwele na kwezinye iindawo zomzimba.

  • M0 – Umhlaza awusasazekanga kwamanye amalungu omzimba.
  • M1a – Umhlaza uye wanwenwela emiphungeni.
  • M1b – Umhlaza uye wanwenwela kwamanye amalungu omzimba (ngaphandle kwemiphunga).

Wakuba umhlaza unikwe inqanaba le-TMN liye lidityaniswe nenqanaba lomhlaza ukufumanisa inqanaba lomhlaza (phakathi kwe-1 kunye ne-4). Itheyibhile engezantsi ibonisa indlela ezidityaniswa ngayo. Oku akubandakanyi i-osteosarcoma evela kumqolo okanye i-pelvis. Fumana ulwazi oluthe kratya malunga nokubekwa kwezi ntlobo ze-osteosarcoma Umbutho waseMelika weOncology.  

Isigaba

kwiBanga

Ubungakanani (T)

Indawo (N)

Ukusasaza (M)

1A low T1 N0 M0
1B low I-T2 / T3 N0 M0
2A phezulu T1 N0 M0
2B phezulu T2 N0 M0
3 phezulu T3 N0 M0
4A Ephakamileyo okanye Ephantsi T1 / T2 / T3 N0 M1a
4B Ephakamileyo okanye Ephantsi T1 / T2 / T3 N1 M1b

 

Inyangwa njani iOsteosarcoma?

Nangona unyango luhluka kancinci kumazwe ahlukeneyo, uninzi lwabantu luya kunikwa ichemotherapy kunye/okanye utyando ngokuxhomekeke kwinqanaba kunye nebakala lomhlaza. I-Chemotherapy liqela lamachiza asebenza ngokubulala iiseli ezahlulahlula ngokukhawuleza. Ine-a Inkqubo isiphumo kwaye inokunikwa phambi kunye/okanye emva kotyando.

Utyando lwenziwa ukususa ithumba eliphambili (imvelaphi yeeseli zomhlaza). Oogqirha botyando baqeqeshelwa ukugcina uninzi lwelungu kangangoko kodwa kukho iimeko apho ukuchithwa Iyafuneka. I I-Bone Cancer Research Trust unezibonelelo ezinikezelwe ekunikeni inkxaso kunye nolwazi malunga nokunqunyulwa kwamalungu. Kwezinye iimeko, abantu baya kwenziwa utyando olwaziwa ngokuba yi-metastasectomy ukususa nawaphi na amathumba athe kratya emiphungeni (eyona ndawo ixhaphakileyo ye-metastasis kwi-osteosarcoma).

Ayinguye wonke umntu oya kuphendula kwi-chemotherapy kwaye ezinye iindlela zonyango zilinganiselwe. Ngethamsanqa, kukho inani lamachiza avavanywayo kulingo lwezonyango. Ulingo lwezonyango zizifundo zophando lwezonyango ezifuna ukuthatha inxaxheba kwesigulana ukuvavanya unyango olutsha. Ungafumana ngakumbi malunga nolingo lwezonyango Apha.  

Ukuhlala kunye naNgaphandle kweOsteosarcoma?

Uhambo lomhlaza lomntu wonke lwahlukile, kwaye abantu abaninzi bayaxhamla kwinkxaso ngexesha nasemva konyango. Kulo lonke nasemva kohambo lwakho lonyango umcebisi wakho uya kubhukisha amadinga akho rhoqo ukujonga inkqubela yakho kwaye alungise naziphi na izinto ezikuxhalabisayo. Uya kubekwa esweni ubuncinci iminyaka eli-10 emva kokugqiba unyango nangona amaxesha okundwendwela aya kuncipha.

Kukwakho neqela lemibutho emangalisayo ebonelela ngenkxaso ngokwasengqondweni nasemzimbeni kwabo baphila ne-osteosarcoma nangaphaya kwayo kuquka nabo babathandayo. Ungafumana uluhlu lwemibutho yehlabathi Apha.

Ezinye izixhobo malunga ne-Osteosarcoma

The I-Bone Cancer Research Trust babe namaphepha eenyaniso kunye neencwadana malunga ne-osteosarcoma kubantu abadala kunye nolutsha.

Sarcoma UK inolwazi malunga ne-osteosarcoma. 

Iiarhente ze-MIB yiba nencwadi ebhalwe ziintsapho ze-osteosarcoma ukuxhasa iintsapho ngohambo lonyango. Le ncwadi ifumaneka ngeelwimi ezininzi ezahlukeneyo. 

The I-NHS ibonelela ulwazi malunga ne-osteosarcoma.    

“Ukuze ndikwazi ukuphuhlisa iyeza elinceda abantu abane-osteosarcoma ngokwenene luxabiso kumhlobo wentombi yam.”

UNjingalwazi uNancy DeMore, kwiYunivesithi yezoNyango yaseMzantsi Carolina

Uphononongo lwakutsha nje oluvela ku-@UofCalifornia luchonge into ekujoliswe kuyo ichiza elitsha elinokubakho ukunyanga #osteosarcoma ngotshintsho lwe-RB1. Nangona uphando lukwinqanaba lokuqala lubonisa ukuba ukuqonda kwethu i-osteosarcoma kuyanda.

Funda ibhlog yethu 👉https://bit.ly/3RlatE1

Gcwalisa Okuninzi...

Joyina incwadana yethu yeendaba yekota ukuze uhlale unolwazi ngophando lwamva nje, iminyhadala kunye nezibonelelo.